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Dyscalculia is difficulty in learning or comprehending arithmetic, such as difficulty in understanding numbers, learning how to manipulate numbers, and learning facts in mathematics. It is generally seen as a specific developmental disorder.

It can occur in people from across the whole IQ range - often higher than average - along with difficulties with time, measurement, and spatial reasoning.

Estimates of the prevalence of dyscalculia range between 3 and 6% of the population. In 2004, it was reported that a quarter of children with dyscalculia had ADHD.

In 2015, it was established that 11% of children with dyscalculia also have ADHD. Dyscalculia has also been associated with people who have Turner syndrome and people who have spina bifida.

Mathematical disabilities can occur as the result of some types of brain injury, in which case the proper term, acalculia, is to distinguish it from dyscalculia which is of innate, genetic or developmental origin.